Computer languages have evolved into four generations now. The term computer language denotes a high-level language like C, and C++. They have a unique set of keywords that the program understands. The first generation computer languages were written as 0s and 1s (binary) but it was difficult to interpret, resulting in errors. The second generation computer languages were simpler, involving percentages and symbols. The third generation languages like C, C++, and Java indicated the evolution of programming that was typically tough to write but people were more inclined to learn them. 50 years back, computer programmers were writing codes. Now, new technologies are emerging and developing at a very rapid speed. Today, there are more than 2000 documented programming languages. Here’s a look at some of the most relevant computer languages.
Created in the 1970s by Bells Labs, it’s a powerful command language that helps to manipulate large amounts of data.
- The AWK Programming Language: A place where you can get the book by Aho, Kernighan, and Weinberger.
- User’s Guide: Comprehensive guide on the program.
- AWK Language Programming: A guide for GNU AWK.
BASH (Bourne-Again SHell) is a command language exclusively written for the GNU operating system.
- BASH Programming Language: Indispensable BASH reference manual.
- A to Z Index of BASH Commands: BASH commands for Linux operating system.
- Introduction to BASH Programming: Almost everything you need to know to get started with BASH.
C is a very powerful programming language for creating computer programs developed by Dennis Ritchie. C is extensively used in developing portable application software.
- Learn C: A place to learn this programming language.
- Simplest C Programs: Provides examples for better understanding of the language.
- Why prefer C to C++: Interesting educational links, articles, and books about C.
C++ is much more advanced version of C that adds modern programming language features to make it simpler.
- The C++ Programming Language: A place to get started and learn the functionalities of the program.
- Tutorials: A complete C++ language tutorial.
- A Brief History: A look at the development of C++.
Common Lisp, commonly known as CL, is a high-performance ANSI-standard programming language. The best thing about Common Lisp is that the user can choose the approach and paradigm depending on the application domain.
- Implement Common Lisp: Great introduction to Common Lisp.
- Recommended book: An E-book for free browsing where users can also find a collection of Q & A interviews from great programmers
- Beginners and Advanced Lisp programmers: Guide to resolve issues with Common Lisp for beginners and advanced programmers.
Eiffel is an object-oriented language. One of the more matured programming languages, it evolved in 1985. Eiffel codes are readable and reusable in solving computing problems.
- Eiffel resources: The best way to learn everything about Eiffel.
- Encyclopedia of Eiffel: A place to learn about the characteristics of Eiffel, overall structure, examples, and codes.
- Eiffel Room: Online community for Eiffel users.
A fully evolved computer programming language, Emacs Lisp can be used with any other programming language.
- Emacs Lisp Introduction: Provides an adequate overview of the programming language.
- Learn Emacs Programming: All you want to know about Emacs Lisp software.
- Tutorial: Offer tutorials from basic to more complex Emacs Lisp programming.
Erlang is another programming language that is used to build strong systems of programs that can be distributed via a network. Erlang is similar to Java.
- Learning Erlang: A complete guide to learning basic Erlang.
- Erlang for C, C++, Java programmers: A tutorial covering main concepts of Erlang.
- Erlang Programming: An essential book about the programming language.
Forth is a high level computer programming language based on the concept of stack. It does not rely on the use of variables. The language helps to break down a tougher problem.
- Forth Style Guide: A beginner’s introduction to Forth.
- Forth: Provides good information on the language.
- FIG: Official site of the Forth Interest Group, a community dedicated to the education and promotion of Forth.
- Programming Forth: A great starting point to learn about Forth programming.
Icon is yet another high-level programming language with features to process data structures and character strings. Icon does the work more quickly than C programming. It is also useful for trying out new ideas, quick programming, text processing, graphics programming, and handling very large data types.
- Frequently Asked Questions: FAQs about Icon programming language.
- Handbook: A place to refer to Icon’s programming language handbook.
- Icon Data Structures: A complete guide on how to use data structures in Icon.
Java is ideal for a programmer who is adept with text and graphics. Java is used to build an end user interface, protocol for how to read a data, write data, and receive data from the interface.
- Learn Java online: Provides Java tutorials and online training.
- Downloads: Free downloads are available here.
- Trail: Covers the fundamentals of Java programming.
- Programming using Java: Free e-book introducing users to the fundamentals of Java.
Lisp is an ideal programming language to help with problems involving high quantitative reasoning, problem solving, problems that change dynamically, and programs with heterogeneous data. It is a language suited to address the most challenging problems.
- History of Lisp: A look at the history, special language features, and sample programs of Lisp language.
- Learn Lisp: All about Lisp in one destination.
- Tutorials: A free tutorial document to learn Lisp.
- Lisp Resources: A collection of online resources and books about Lisp.
Lua is a scripting language which is powerful and fast.
- Scripting language: The basics of Lua as a scripting language.
- Tutorial: A tutorial for beginners of Lua.
- Examples: Provides several programming code examples.
- Download: Free download of Lua software.
It is a programming language that combines both logic and functional programming patterns. Mercury operates with sophisticated, strict type, and mode system.
- Online Examples: Some examples for better understanding of Mercury.
- Mercury Syntax: Helps to explain Mercury’s functionality.
- Mercury Project: Provides lots of useful information on the language.
Ocaml, also known as Objective Caml, is a general purpose programming language. The language features a powerful module system and fully fledged objective-oriented layer.
- Introduction to Ocaml: Easy tutorials to learn the language.
- Style guides: Some examples of good styling guides.
- Objection Caml: Essential information on the creators’ website.
PHP is a widely used programming language. Since it requires less coding, more and more companies have switched to PHP programming.
- PHP: The authoritative site on the language.
- PHP Basics: A great place to get started with the language.
- Example Scripts: Provides links to some PHP examples.
Designed by Larry Wall, Perl is one of the most widely used programming languages. Perl was first used as a text editor but it is now used in web alongside HTML.
- Understanding Perl: A lot of information on Perl programming language.
- Introduction to Perl: Great introduction to Perl.
- Perl: Comprehensive website for this “flexible and powerful” language.
Pike’s syntax is similar to C and Java. It is simple to learn because it does not involve complex functionalities.
- Pike: Dedicated to everything about the language.
- Pike Community: A place for Pike users to get together.
- Understanding Pike: Learn how Pike works to become a better programmer.
Python is a dynamic programming language used for software development. It offers support for integrating other programming languages. Python is a relatively easy language and it can be learnt quickly.
- Learn Python: Getting started with Python.
- 10 Free Books: Get these books to expand your understanding of the language.
- Beginner’s guide: A good starting point for Python beginners.
Ruby is an open source programming language designed to be simple yet productive. Ruby is easy to use and flexible. Its functionalities can be altered, removed or redefined.
- Guide to Ruby: A beginner user’s guide to Ruby scripting language.
- Basic Ruby: Provides some basics of Ruby.
- Ruby: Comprehensive site with information, news, and downloads of the programming language.
SML, also known as Standard ML, is a programming language used exclusively for storing large data structures and functions. It is a typed language with an extensible type system.
- Learn SML: A good introduction to SML.
- Online Tutorials: Many tutorials for SML.
- Standard ML of New Jersey: Provides news, information, and downloads.
Scheme is a programming language that can run in Microsoft Windows, UNIX, and IBM OS/2. It has a rich library of resources and integrated editor like Emacs.
- Understanding Scheme: All about Scheme programming language.
- Scheme Library: Develop your programming skills by learning more about it.
- Scheme: Offers a lot of good information on the language.
Tool Command Language (TCL) is suitable for a variety of purposes such as web, networking, administrations, testing, and desktop applications. It is a mature yet highly developing language.
- Learn TCL: Online tutorials to help users learn TCL.
- Online tutorials: Some TCL tutorials to help you understand the concepts of TCL codes.
- TCL Developer Xchange: Dedicated to the development of the language.
Programming languages act as a link between man and a machine. New programming languages are created as technology advances. To build a career in computer science and information technology, programmers have to stay ahead of the competition. This is why it’s so important to have the best computer language guide.
Comment from: Michael McDowell [Visitor]
You missed out two very common languages in use today. I.e. C# amd Visual Basic.
Visual Basic probably has the most support for beginners out of all the languages mentioned above.
Comment from: Robert L Hamilton [Visitor]
why do you not mention REXX/OBJREXX/NETREXX
Very easy and straight forward to Learn. NETREXX generators JAVA for the JVM
Comment from: zeeshan [Visitor]
c++ is good and the most descent language. it is used in robotics and automation. may be Electronic Engineers are more concerned with c++ and matlab.everyone could learn c++ but not java
Comment from: john d.smith [Visitor]
what does (;-) mean? or >>> or : I know what they mean in regular writing, but what do they mean in computer language? Where can I get a dictionary computer wording or language? Jds
Comment from: manju [Visitor]
which programming language is easy to learn c++ or java?
Comment from: perlbabu4m [Visitor]
comparing with all scripts perl is most powerful but i think u did not cover that.perl for all. performance also high.
Comment from: alexander [Visitor]
writing code is very fun for me
Comment from: Elliott Garvin [Visitor]
They might not have mentioned REXX/OBJREXX/NETREXX because they got to carried away with all this other junk…
Comment from: deepak [Visitor]
C is the father language of every other language without C your base is not much powerful…
C is the base of every language…
Comment from: Name [Visitor]
You missed Flash.
What Flash (Actionscript 3 & Stage 3D) can provide to a website, with hardware-accelerated graphics, 2D / 3D animation etc, no other language can provide, including the consistency of being unique (no variations in behavior depending on the browser).
Comment from: Andy Patterson [Visitor]
I think you missed some vary important computer languages. You seam to only list languages that are on UNIX OS.
There were many early languages like FORTRAN and COBOL. ALGOL is another important language as it was basicly the the first block structured language of any major use.
ADA, PL1 amd modula2 should be in the list. DEC had a development language called BLISS bliss-10 and bliss-11. The bliss language was like an assembler in that the values of the symbols were used were used in expersions. Where in most high level languages a symbol evaluates to it’s contents. .x would get the contents of of memory at x where x would be the address. I.e. if the the value of x is 20 and the contents of memory address 20 were 100 and memory address 25 were 200 then
x+5 would evaluate to 25
.x+5 would evaluate to 105
.(x+5) would evaluate to 200
.(x+5)+5 would evaluate to 205
..(x+5) would evealuate to the contents of memory location 200
There were also meta compiler languages like treemeta, cwic and others.
I was the head of the language development department at Kontron(FutureData) were we produced many compilers and assemblers to suport our ISE micro computer development systems.
Comment from: soniya singhal [Visitor]
i have to know about best language to be stuided except c,c++ and java.
Comment from: Bob [Visitor]
Basic was the most influential computer language that had given programmers so much. Is it because it was invented in Massachusetts that you do not mention it?
Comment from: pathan [Visitor]
why do you not mention PASCAL